Nurturance represents the degree to which parents foster and recognize individuality and self-assertion by being supportive and responsive to their child’s needs, showing interest in child activities, spending time with their child, praising their child for good behavior, and expressing affection and care (warmth) toward their child.
|Involvement:||parents being involved with their child by attending the child’s events and activities, and spending time with their child.|
|Autonomy support:||parenting behaviors in which children are promoted to express their feeling and opinions.|
|Responsiveness:||the extent to which parents are aware of their child’s feelings, problems, and difficulties, and the way they respond in a supportive and attuned manner.|
|Social rewarding:||verbally praising their child as a reward for good behavior.|